Thursday, May 21, 2020

An Introduction to Erikson’s Stages of Development

Psychoanalyst Erik Eriksons stages of psychosocial development theorize a model of human psychological growth made up of eight stages that cover the entire lifespan from birth to old age. Each stage is defined by a central crisis that the individual must grapple with to move on to the next stage. Erikson’s theory has been highly influential in scholars’ understanding of human development and identity formation. Key Takeaways: Erikson's Stages of Development Erik Eriksons stages of development describe eight periods spanning the human lifecycle.Development does not end when an individual reaches adulthood, but continues for their whole life.Each stage of development revolves around a central crisis that the individual must contend with to progress to the next stage.Success at each stage relies on succeeding in previous stages. People must proceed through the stages in the order laid out by Erikson. Trust vs. Mistrust The first stage takes place in infancy and ends around age 1. Letting caretakers out of sight without anxiety is an infants first social achievement. In other words, infants must develop a sense of trust in their caretakers and the people around them. Newborns come into the world vulnerable and dependent on others to survive. When a child’s caretakers successfully provide for their needs—like food, warmth, and safety—the child develops confidence in the world as a safe and secure place. If the child’s needs are not met, however, they come to perceive the world as inconsistent and untrustworthy. This doesn’t mean that all mistrust is bad. A certain amount of mistrust is necessary; without it, a child could become too trusting and consequently would not know when to be skeptical of people’s intentions. Still, an individual should emerge from this stage with a greater sense of trust than mistrust. An infant who triumphs in this endeavor will develop the virtue of hope, which is the belief that desires are achievable despite the chaos of the world. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt The second stage takes place when the child is around 2 or 3 years old. Growing children become more capable of doing things on their own. If they are supported in their newfound independence, they learn confidence in their abilities. On the other hand children who are too controlled or criticized will start to doubt their ability to take care of themselves. A kid who emerges from this stage with a greater sense of autonomy than shame or doubt develops the virtue of will: the ability to make choices freely while also having self-control when appropriate. Initiative vs. Guilt The third stage takes place between the ages of 3 and 6. Preschool-age children start to take initiative in pursuing individual objectives. When they are successful, they develop a sense of competence in their ability to make and achieve goals. If accomplishing their goals meets resistance or becomes socially problematic, they experience guilt. Too much guilt can lead to a lack of self-confidence. Someone who emerges from this stage with an overall positive experience in taking initiative develops the virtue of purpose, or the ability to determine what they want and go for it. Industry vs. Inferiority The fourth stage takes place from 6 to 11 years old, marked by the child’s first forays into grade school and structured learning. This is the first time they must try to understand and contend with the expectations of the wider culture. At this age, kids learn what it means to be a good member of society in terms of productivity and morality. Children who come to believe they cannot function properly in society develop feelings of inferiority. Those who experience success at this stage acquire the virtue of competence, developing sufficient skills and learning to be capable at different tasks. Identity vs. Role Confusion The fifth stage takes place during adolescence and in some cases can extend into the 20s. With the onset of puberty, physical and cognitive changes cause adolescents to consider the future for the first time. Theyre trying to figure out who they are and what they want. On the other hand, theyll worry about making unwise commitments, and are concerned about the way others, especially their peers, perceive them. While identity development is a lifelong process, the fifth stage a key time for individuation as adolescents start to choose and pursue the roles they wish to fulfill as adults. They also must begin to develop a worldview that gives them a sense of personal perspective. Success here results in a coherent sense of identity that leads to the virtue of fidelity, which is loyalty to one’s commitments. Intimacy vs. Isolation The sixth stage takes place during young adulthood. While adolescents are often too preoccupied to truly be intimate with another person, young adults are individuals with an established sense of their own identity who can achieve genuine interpersonal connections. At this stage, those whose relationships remain impersonal experience isolation. People who achieve more intimacy than isolation at this stage will develop the virtue of mature love. Generativity vs. Stagnation The seventh stage takes place during midlife. At this time, people turn their attention to what theyll offer the next generation. Erikson called this â€Å"generativity.† Adults who produce something that contributes to the future, like creative works and new ideas, are being generative. Adults who are unsuccessful at this stage become stagnant, self-absorbed, and bored. However, generative adults who contribute to the next generation avoid becoming overly self-indulgent and develop the virtue of care. Ego Integrity vs. Despair The eighth and final stage takes place during old age. At this point, people start to look back on their lives. If they can accept and find meaning in their lifelong accomplishments, theyll achieve integrity. If people look back and don’t like what they see, they realize that life is too short to try out alternatives or repair regrets, which leads to despair. Finding meaning in one’s life in old age results in the virtue of wisdom. The Structure of the Stages Erikson was influenced by the work of Sigmund Freud, particularly Freuds stage theory of psychosexual development. Erikson expanded on the five stages outlined by Freud by assigning psychosocial tasks to each stage, then adding three additional stages for later periods of adulthood. Erikson’s stages rest on the epigenetic principle, the idea that one moves through each stage depending on the outcome of the previous one and, therefore, that individuals must go through the stages in a specific order. At each stage, individuals must wrestle with a central psychosocial conflict to advance to the next stage. Each stage has a particular conflict because individual growth and sociocultural context work together to bring that conflict to the individuals attention at a particular point in life. For example, an infant who develops more mistrust than trust in a caretaker during the first stage may experience role confusion during the fifth stage. Similarly, if an adolescent emerges from the fifth stage without having successfully developed a strong sense of identity, he or she may have difficulty developing intimacy during the sixth stage. Because of such structural elements, Erikson’s theory communicates two key points: Development does not stop at adulthood. Rather, individuals continue to develop throughout their entire lifespan.Each stage of development hinges upon the individual’s interaction with the social world. Critiques Eriksons stage theory has faced some criticism for its limitations. Erikson was vague about what an individual must experience to successfully overcome the conflict of each stage. He also wasn’t specific about how people move through the various stages. Erikson knew that his work was unclear. He explained his intention to provide context and descriptive detail for development, not precise facts about developmental mechanisms. Nevertheless, Erikson’s theory inspired much research into human development, identity, and personality. Resources and Further Reading Crain, William C. Theories of Development: Concepts and Applications. 6th ed., Psychology Press, 2015.Dunkel, Curtis S., and Jon A. Sefcek. â€Å"Eriksonian Lifespan Theory and Life History Theory: An Integration Using the Example of Identity Formation.† Review of General Psychology, vol. 13, no. 1, 1 Mar. 2009, pp. 13-23.Erikson, Erik H. Childhood and Society. Norton, 1963.Erikson, Erik H. Identity, Youth, and Crisis. Norton, 1968.McAdams, Dan P. The Person: An Introduction to the Science of Personality Psychology. 5th ed., Wiley, 2008.McLeod, Saul. â€Å"Erik Eriksons Stages of Psychosocial Development.† Simply Psychology, 2018.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Wealth and Happiness - 753 Words

Engelsk eksamensopgave – Opgave A 1. Give an outline on the views on the relation between wealth and happiness presented in texts 1 and 2. In text 1 David tells us of how wealth is nothing compared to your relationships with other people. Through many studies it has been shown that people get more happiness out of socializing with people than making lots of money. Text 1 ends with the conclusion that personal triumphs are important, but not as important as relationships. In text 2 we are told that studies show that people are happier when using money on experiences rather than on material goods like a new couch. Some studies also show that people tend to want what the neighbor has. But if people spend more money on experiences, they†¦show more content†¦But does a long life necessarily mean a happy life? â€Å"If you have a successful marriage, it doesn’t matter how many professional setbacks you endure, you will be reasonably happy. If you have an unsuccessful marriage, it doesn’t matter how many career triumphs you record, you will remain significantly unfulfilled† David strongly disagrees with the research, and makes the statement that a good marriage means a good life. He also insures to tell the reader that there are lots of data to back it up, so we know that it isn’t just he who only thinks it. The reader is then explained sets of studies where people are tested for what gives the most happiness in life. One example of the text is that, a group of people who meets once a month produces the same amount of happiness as a doubling of your income. David Brooks’s conclusion on the text is that, career triumphs actually give lots of happiness, but they emerge out of your relationships with other people so therefore relationships is the most important thing. David gives the text an open end. Is it the school systems fault? Do they prepare children more for a career than for making big social decisions? 3. Based on the opinions voiced in text 2 and 3, discuss whether spending makes people happy. As we are told in text three, there is a difference between poor and wealthy people. The studies have shown that an increase in income makes poorShow MoreRelatedWealth and Happiness1004 Words   |  5 PagesWealth and happiness The human kind has always strived towards power, and wealth is one of the necessities for those who want this power. However, nowadays many seek wealth, because they want the freedom that money can grant, and thus become happier. Some people tend overrate how much happier they will get by becoming rich. That leads to the question: â€Å"Can you buy happiness?† 1. In the first text, David Brooks tries to explain the correlation between wealth and happiness. With Sandra Bullock’sRead MoreRelationship Between Wealth And Happiness1328 Words   |  6 PagesDoes wealth equal happiness? 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However, even though analyzing happiness is complicatedRead MoreThe Great Gatsby : Wealth And Happiness1291 Words   |  6 Pagesonce said, â€Å"Happiness resides not in possessions, and not in gold, happiness dwells in the soul.† Throughout the ages, wealth and riches have always seemed to catch the eyes of men. Numerous people believe even today that money is the source of happiness. As seen in The Great Gatsby, wealth and happiness are two major themes portrayed over and over again by Fitzgerald’s characters. Many of the characters in the story gain wealth believing that with riches, they can soon gain happiness. Yet time andRead M ore Does Economic Wealth Mean Happiness? Essay1348 Words   |  6 Pagesendeavor is to achieve happiness.† Happiness is an ultimate goal of life and virtually everybody wants to be happy. Happiness is a psychological state of mind that the feelings of pleasure. Happiness is, after all, a state of mind. Happiness can be achieved by following measures including: psychological well-being, education system, living standards, government governance and politics, social position, and ecological environment wellness (Mankiw Taylor, 2011, p. 8). Economic wealth is the net worth ofRead MoreImproving Decisions About Health, Wealth, And Happiness2063 Words   |  9 PagesPublic policy Nudge: Improving decisions about health, wealth, and happiness According to both Thaler and Sunsteins most human beings do not make decisions that are characterized in the elementary economics textbooks. However, the decisions should be along rich suggestions that enable people to come up with better choices for both ourselves and the society. Various people are likely to be surprised after learning that conditions and the setting in which individuals make the decisions normally tendRead MoreThe Media s Influence On The Public s Perceptions Of Wealth And Happiness2105 Words   |  9 Pagesoften provides a simplistic and stereotypical ideal of wealth and well-being. I intend to demonstrate that the political ideologies reinforced by the images created in reality TV can be damaging and misleading to the public perception, often running counter to the statistical reality. Through a review of specific programs and research, I will establish that these shows are subconsciously influencing the public’s perceptions of wealth and happiness. In North America almost every household (99%) ownsRead MoreHealth and Happiness Gives Us All the Wealth We Need678 Words   |  3 Pages â€Å"If you have health, you probably will be happy, and if you have health and happiness, you have all the wealth you need, even if it is not all you want.† – Elbert Hubbard. What would it feel like to have obesity related illnesses claim over 2.8 million lives a year? It is important to maintain a healthy lifestyle because you have less of a chance to get sick, when you’re healthy you feel mentally and emotionally happier, and you are more of a good and kind-hearted person. It is extremely importantRead MoreAnalysis Of Nudge : Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, And Happiness, By Thaler And Sunstein1310 Words   |  6 Pagesslight push in a positive direction. These slight pushes can be noted as nudges and can incorporate a negative or positive impact in an individual’s life, depending on how they are utilized. In the book, Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness, by Thaler and Sunstein, nudges are explored in ways of how they can essentially help humans make better decisions that benefit them throughout their life (2009). However, even though nudges can push people in a positive direction, they alsoRead MoreBlack and White Peoples Contrasting Ideas About Wealth and Happiness Depicted in the Poem Nikki-Rosa713 Words   |  3 Pagesblack people have fundamentally different ideas about wealth and happiness. Along with her words, she uses structure, tone and imagery to convey her belief that white people and black people see their personal life-experiences differently. Wealth for black people is love, family, and togetherness, not tangible items. A sense of community and acceptance of one another are more valuable than having even a private toilet. White people see â€Å"black wealth† as a hard life and focus on the tangible things that

Diversity Walkabout Free Essays

It cost us $12 to get in, but we learned that all proceed des go towards the Human Rights Education Project which aims to educate refugees and immigrant ants about their legal rights and responsibilities. In the hour or so that we were there, we saw a display of diverse backgrounds and cultures. We ate a variety of unfamiliar foods. We will write a custom essay sample on Diversity Walkabout or any similar topic only for you Order Now My favorite the inning I tried was Baklava made by a woman named Man. It was uplifting to see how proud SSH e was of her culture and what she had made. It was very crowded and as we walked throw GHz we encountered efferent cultures being represented through art, music, dance, and cuisine. T here was one woman displaying what looked like handmade corn husk dolls, squatting next to a man dancing and playing the drums. This was just one example of how the cultures mixed and blended and everyone was just happy to be celebrating this day together. At the end of the nightwear watched Erik George, a Professor of Law at the University of Utah receive the Human Rights award for her work against sexual assault. It was an nice closure to the night. This experience was very new for me but I really enjoyed it. The atmosphere was very friendly and I didn’t feel like anyone was judging anyone else and there was a sense of appreciation amongst everyone. It was an opportunity for me to see how dive rose Salt Lake really is, something that think people are often oblivious to. This experience was did efferent than other experiences I have had because it was as though I was an outsider learning lee raring about cultures knew nothing about, when usually my culture is the prominent one. Am very happy that ended up attending this event. It made me feel like I had learned a lot a ND exposed myself to cultures I wouldn’t have otherwise been exposed to. I now have a deeper a appreciation for the diversity that Salt Lake has to offer. This event is very relatable to what we have been learning in social justice. We have learned that the main reason why stereotypes and generalizations exist is beck cause people are uneducated and ignorant to how things really are. By going to this event, I WA s able to learn about different cultures. I don’t think had any prejudices before going but I w as under many else impressions about the people that also call Salt Lake a home. Now, I can say that know a little more than I did before and hopefully I can use that to do my part to stop the discrimination that happens against diverse cultures. There are still so many things I could lee ran about these cultures, but at least now I know they exist and I have seen a small portion of all the beautiful things they do and create. If anyone tried to tell me that Salt Lake wasn’t diver SE or that the mixing of cultures throughout the city aren’t important I would tell them that I eave seen first hand how wrong that is. How to cite Diversity Walkabout, Papers

Diversity Walkabout Free Essays

It cost us $12 to get in, but we learned that all proceed des go towards the Human Rights Education Project which aims to educate refugees and immigrant ants about their legal rights and responsibilities. In the hour or so that we were there, we saw a display of diverse backgrounds and cultures. We ate a variety of unfamiliar foods. We will write a custom essay sample on Diversity Walkabout or any similar topic only for you Order Now My favorite the inning I tried was Baklava made by a woman named Man. It was uplifting to see how proud SSH e was of her culture and what she had made. It was very crowded and as we walked throw GHz we encountered efferent cultures being represented through art, music, dance, and cuisine. T here was one woman displaying what looked like handmade corn husk dolls, squatting next to a man dancing and playing the drums. This was just one example of how the cultures mixed and blended and everyone was just happy to be celebrating this day together. At the end of the nightwear watched Erik George, a Professor of Law at the University of Utah receive the Human Rights award for her work against sexual assault. It was an nice closure to the night. This experience was very new for me but I really enjoyed it. The atmosphere was very friendly and I didn’t feel like anyone was judging anyone else and there was a sense of appreciation amongst everyone. It was an opportunity for me to see how dive rose Salt Lake really is, something that think people are often oblivious to. This experience was did efferent than other experiences I have had because it was as though I was an outsider learning lee raring about cultures knew nothing about, when usually my culture is the prominent one. Am very happy that ended up attending this event. It made me feel like I had learned a lot a ND exposed myself to cultures I wouldn’t have otherwise been exposed to. I now have a deeper a appreciation for the diversity that Salt Lake has to offer. This event is very relatable to what we have been learning in social justice. We have learned that the main reason why stereotypes and generalizations exist is beck cause people are uneducated and ignorant to how things really are. By going to this event, I WA s able to learn about different cultures. I don’t think had any prejudices before going but I w as under many else impressions about the people that also call Salt Lake a home. Now, I can say that know a little more than I did before and hopefully I can use that to do my part to stop the discrimination that happens against diverse cultures. There are still so many things I could lee ran about these cultures, but at least now I know they exist and I have seen a small portion of all the beautiful things they do and create. If anyone tried to tell me that Salt Lake wasn’t diver SE or that the mixing of cultures throughout the city aren’t important I would tell them that I eave seen first hand how wrong that is. How to cite Diversity Walkabout, Papers

Saturday, April 25, 2020

Scientific Notation Worksheet Essays - Measurement, Notation

Scientific Notation Worksheet Convert the following numbers into scientific notation: 1) 3,400 _______________________________ 2) 0.000023 _______________________________ 3) 101,000 _______________________________ 4) 0.010 _______________________________ 5) 45.01 _______________________________ 6) 1,000,000 _______________________________ 7) 0.00671 _______________________________ 8) 4.50 _______________________________ Convert the following numbers into standard notation: 9) 2.30 x 104 _______________________________ 10) 1.76 x 10-3 _______________________________ 11) 1.901 x 10-7 _______________________________ 12) 8.65 x 10-1 _______________________________ 13) 9.11 x 103 _______________________________ 14) 5.40 x 101 _______________________________ 15) 1.76 x 100 _______________________________ 16) 7.4 x 10-5 _______________________________ Scientific Notation Worksheet - Solutions Convert the following numbers into scientific notation: 1) 3,400 3.4 x 103 2) 0.000023 2.3 x 10-5 3) 101,000 1.01 x 105 4) 0.010 1.0 x 10-2 5) 45.01 4.501 x 101 6) 1,000,000 1 x 106 7) 0.00671 6.71 x 10-3 8) 4.50 4.50 x 100 Convert the following numbers into standard notation: 9) 2.30 x 104 23,000 10) 1.76 x 10-3 0.00176 11) 1.901 x 10-7 0.0000001901 12) 8.65 x 10-1 0.865 13) 9.11 x 103 9,110 14) 5.40 x 101 54.0 15) 1.76 x 100 1.76 16) 7.4 x 10-5 0.000074

Wednesday, March 18, 2020

If Youre a Nature Lover, You Need These Words in Your Vocabulary

If Youre a Nature Lover, You Need These Words in Your Vocabulary Robert Macfarlane loves words about nature and our interaction with it. In fact, he loves it so much that he compiled Landmarks, a collection of words used across America, England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales- some of which have been long forgotten- to describe natural scenery.In an article written for The Guardian, he explains why he felt the need to publish this compendium:†¦Although we have fabulous compendia of flora, fauna and insects (Richard Mabeys Flora Britannica and Mark Cockers Birds Britannica chief among them), we lack a Terra Britannica, as it were: a gathering of terms for the land and its weathers- terms used by crofters, fishermen, farmers, sailors, scientists, miners, climbers, soldiers, shepherds, poets, walkers and unrecorded others for whom particularised ways of describing place have been vital to everyday practice and perception.Robert Macfarlane, The GuardianIn that same article, he further details the events that led him to collect these words:The same s ummer I was on Lewis, a new edition of the Oxford Junior Dictionary was published. A sharp-eyed reader noticed that there had been a culling of words concerning nature. Under pressure, Oxford University Press revealed a list of the entries it no longer felt to be relevant to a modern-day childhood. The deletions included acorn, adder, ash, beech, bluebell, buttercup, catkin, conker, cowslip, cygnet, dandelion, fern, hazel, heather, heron, ivy, kingfisher, lark, mistletoe, nectar, newt, otter, pasture and willow. The words taking their places in the new edition included attachment, block-graph, blog, broadband, bullet-point, celebrity, chatroom, committee, cut-and-paste, MP3 player and voice-mail.Robert Macfarlane, The GuardianAs Macfarlanes story about the Oxford Junior Dictionary shows, we live in a time when we are generally less connected to nature and to our surrounding natural world. This is especially true for children, who know more about gaming systems and iPads than they do about the sound of the wind through the trees and capturing fireflies. What does this mean for our next generation of poets and writers- writers who are losing the vernacular that was once so common among artists who explored the natural world around them?With this in mind, here is a list of words that shouldnt be forgotten by poets and writers who are likewise nature lovers. Teach them to your children so they wont be completely lost.Wind, rain, snow, and stormsAfter-drop (Poetic)Raindrop which falls after a cloud has passed (first cited in Sir Philip Sidneys Arcadia, c 1580)Airie (Caithness)Gentle breath of windAchram (Irish)Very heavy rain (literally, boisterous behavior)Billow (East Anglia)SnowdriftBrim (Orkney)Cold, drying wind that withers plantsBlacthorn Winter(Herefordshire) Winter that turns very cold late in the seasonCith (Gaelic)Shower of warm, drizzling rainDomra (Shetland)Obscuration of the sky by hazeDribs (Leicestershire, Northamptonshire)Rain which falls in drops f rom the eaves of thatched housesDringey (Lincolnshire)Light rain that still manages to get you soaking wetFeetings (Suffolk)Footprints of creatures as they appear in the snowGleamy (Essex)Showers with fitful sunshineGoldfoil (Poetic)Coined by the poet Gerard Manley Hopkins, describing a sky lit by lightning in zigzag dints and creasings.Heavengravel (Poetic)Hailstones Gerard Manley HopkinsLattin, letty (Shropshire and Somerset, respectively)Enough rain to make outdoor work difficultOogly (Cornish)Referring to the sky, when it foretells wild weatherPayling (Northamptonshire)Wind-driven showerPenitent (Geography)Spike or pinnacle of compact snow and ice left standing after differential melting of a snowfieldPetrichor (Scientific)The pleasant, distinctive small of rain in the air, sometimes detectable before the rain has even begun to fall, and especially strong when the first rain falls after a period of warm, dry weatherPirr (Shetlandic)A light breath of wind, such as will make a cat s paw on the waterPuthery (Cheshire)Intense stillness and humidity immediately before a storm breaksRoarie bummlers (Scottish)Fast-moving storm cloudsSnow-bones (Yorkshire)Patches of snow seen stretching along ridges, in ruts, or in furrows after a partial thawUngive (Northamptonshire and East Anglia)To thawVirga (Meteorological)Observable streak or shaft of precipitation that falls from a cloud but evaporates before reaching the groundWeather-mooth (Caithness)Clear area in the sky, low on the horizon, from which the clouds appear to streamWhewan (Orkney)Wind that howls around cornersWhiffle (Kent)Referring to the wind, when it comes in unpredictable gustsWhittle (Cheshire)A strong gust of wine, supposedly named after Captain Whittle, whose coffin was hurled to the ground from its bearers shoulders by such a gustWilliwaw (Nautical)Sudden, violent squallWolfsnow (Poetic)Dangerously heavy and wind-driven snow (Gerard Manley Hopkins)MountaineeringAlpenglow (Mountaineering)Light of the setting or rising sun seen illuminating high mountains or the underside of cloudsAlpenglow is the light of the setting or rising sun seen illuminating high mountains or the underside of clouds. Photo by eberhard grossgasteiger on Unsplash.Chockstone (Mountaineering)A stone wedged in a vertical cleft or chimney of rock, impeding progressChoss (Mountaineering)Rock that is unsuitable for climbing due to its instability or friabilityCreachann (Gaelic)Grassless, stony hilltopMoel (Welsh)A hilltop or mountain summit that is treeless and roundedNick (Yorkshire)Gap in the hills through which weather comesSlip-rift (Geological)Cave or chasm formed by the peeling away of one rock layer from another under the duress of gravityWaterAber (Welsh)Mouth of a river (into the sea); confluence of a lesser with a larger riverAbhainn (Gaelic)Substantial river, often running to the sea, with numerous tributariesAcker (North Sea Coast)Ripple on the surface of the waterBala (Welsh)Outflow of a river from a lakeBorbhan (Gaelic)Purling or murmur of a streamCaochan (Scottish)A small stream flowing across moorland and boggy ground with its channel concealed by heather and other moor vegetationCymer (Welsh)Confluence of two or more streams Moonwake (Poetic) The reflection of moonlight on a body of waterFaoi (Gaelic)Noisy streamHurdifell (Shetland)Steep, rocky hill covered in bouldersJabble (Scottish)Agitated movement of water; a splashing or dashing in small waves or ripples; where currents meet, the water is said to be jabblyLoom (Cumbria)Slow and silent movement of water in a deep poolPell (Sussex)Hole of water, generally very deep, beneath an abrupt waterfallSoma (Irish)A body of water that is abounding in swansStaran (Gaelic)Causeway of stones built out into a lake in order to fetch waterTrunnel (English regional)A road or path where, in summer, the leaves of trees on both sides form a canopyA Trunnel is an English word noting a road or path where, in summer, the leaves of trees on bo th sides form a canopy. Photo by Jason Ortego on Unsplash.Twevelet (Poetic)Small leaf bundles snagged around river twigs after a floodWinterbourne (Anglo-Saxon)Intermittent or ephemeral stream, dry in the summer and running in winterMoon, sun, and starsApricity (Phenological)Suns warmth in winterBenighted (Mountaineering)Overtaken by darkness while walking or climbingBright-borough (Poetic)Area of the night sky thickly strewn with stars (Gerard Manley Hopkins)Buried moon (Northamptonshire)Moon seen through a vaporous hazeBurr (East Anglia)Mistiness over and around the moon; a moon-haloDark hour (East Anglia)Interval between the time of sufficient light to work or read by and the lighting of candles- therefore, a time of social domestic conversation (We will talk that over at the dark hour)Dimpsy, dimsy (Devon, Somerset)Dusk, or the darkened hour brought on by poor weather, or the short period of time between daylight and dusklight. The cusp of duskness (Isabel Macho)Doomfire (Poetic )Sunset light which has the appearance of the apocalypse (Gerard Manley Hopkins)Firesmoke (Childish)Blending of sunrise or sunset with cloudsGreen flash (Optics)Optical phenomenon occurring just before sunset or just after sunrise, in which a green spot is briefly visible above the upper rim of the suns diskGrimlins (Orkney)Night hours around midsummer when dusk blends into dawn and it is hard to say if day is ending or beginningHoarlight (Poetic)Burnished or embossed forehead of sky over the sundown, beautifully clear (Gerard Manley Hopkins)Print-moonlight (Sussex)Moonlight bright enough to read byShepherds lamp (Cambridgeshire, Northamptonshire)First star that rises after sunsetShivelight (Poetic)A word created by poet Gerard Manley Hopkins for the lances of sunshine that pierce the canopy of a woodFlora, fauna and landscapeBerhog (Shetland)Sterile piece of groundDeadfall (Geography)Dead branch that falls from a tree as a result of wind or its own weightDreeping (Irish/poetic)Desc ribing landscape that is heavy with dew or rain (Patrick Kavanagh)Ecotone (Ecological)Transition zone between two biomes, where communities meet and integrate (for example, between field and forest or lake and land)Frail (Banffshire)The skeleton of a leafHopliness (Childish)Changes in color along the length of a stem of grassHoodoo(Geography) Tall, thin spire of rockMute (Exmoor)Stumps of trees and bushes left in the ground after fellingPixy-hunting (Somerset)Climbing trees in an orchard to get the last fruit after the main crop has been harvestedPlatos fire (Poetic)Shadows dancing inside of a tree hollow on a sunny day in the woodsSillion (Poetic)Shining, curved face of earth recently turned by the plowSmeuse (English)The gap in the base of a hedge made by the regular passage of a small animalSmoog (Childish)Referring to a group of children who gather, crack, stack and whack bits of fallen timber in the woodsSnicket (Yorkshire)A narrow path between buildings or between a fence and a fieldSolastalgia (Global)Distress caused by environmental change (climate change, pollution mining) that alters a persons home landscape without them ever leaving itSpurring (Exmoor)Following the tracks of a wild animalSway (Venery)Deviation of an animals footprints from the median line of passageVallum (Northumberland)A wide ditchWilsom (Scots)A way or path leading through wild and desolate regions

Monday, March 2, 2020

Dinosaurs at the American Museum of Natural History

Dinosaurs at the American Museum of Natural History Visiting the fourth floor of the American Museum of Natural History in New York is a bit like dying and going to dinosaur heaven: there are over 600 complete or near-complete fossils of dinosaurs, pterosaurs, marine reptiles, and primitive mammals on display here (these are just the tip of the prehistoric iceberg, since the museum also maintains a collection of over one million bones, accessible only to qualified scientists). The large exhibits are arranged cladistically, evoking the evolutionary relationships of these extinct reptiles as you go from room to room; for example, there are separate halls devoted to ornithischian and saurischian dinosaurs, as well as a Hall of Vertebrate Origins devoted largely to fish, sharks, and the reptiles that preceded the dinosaurs. Why Does AMNH Have so Many Fossils? This institution was at the forefront of early paleontology research, represented by such famous paleontologists as Barnum Brown and Henry F. Osborn- who ranged as far afield as Mongolia to collect dinosaur bones, and, naturally enough, brought the best samples back for permanent exhibition in New York. For this reason, a whopping 85 percent of the display skeletons at the American Museum of Natural History are composed of real fossil material, rather than plaster casts. Some of the most impressive specimens are Lambeosaurus, Tyrannosaurus Rex and Barosaurus, among a cast of hundreds. Planning to Go? If youre planning a trip to AMNH, keep in mind that theres much, much more to see than dinosaurs and prehistoric animals. This museum has one of the worlds best collections of gems and minerals (including a full-sized meteorite), as well as vast halls devoted to extant mammals, birds, reptiles and other creatures from around the globe. The anthropology collection- much of which is devoted to Native Americans- is also a source of wonder. And if youre feeling really ambitious, try attending a show at the nearby Rose Center for Earth and Space (previously the Hayden Planetarium), which will set you back a bit of cash but is well worth the effort.